Industrial instrumentation is used to control and monitor conditions including temperature, pressure and fluid levels in processing facilities, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, oil and gas pipelines, and distribution operations. Common applications of oil and gas instrumentation include monitoring the presence of flammable and combustible gases in production and storage areas and monitoring emissions for pollution control. Instrumentation is also used for monitoring and controlling flow in delivery systems.
The three primary components of industrial instrumentation are sensors, transducers and transmitters.
- Sensors: measure the physical properties of a solid, fluid or gas. In the oil and gas industry, sensors provide continuous measurement to detect and monitor gas and gas emissions.
- Transducers: convert variations in temperature, pressure, flow or level into an electric signal that is then picked up by a transmitter.
- Transmitters: serve as an interface between sensors and measurement instrumentation such as level sensors, flow meters, and pressure sensors. This equipment is responsible for sending a digital signal to the main control system.